Muhammed Azhar
Published © CC BY

Make your first Arduino robot - The best beginners guide!

This is a beginner's guide to making your first Arduino robot. Smart phone controlled, wall follower and obstacle avoiding robot.

BeginnerFull instructions provided1 hour80,247
Make your first Arduino robot - The best beginners guide!

Things used in this project

Hardware components

Arduino UNO & Genuino UNO
Arduino UNO & Genuino UNO
×1
Adafruit L293D Motor Shield
It's a low cost device, and it's easy to use. It's commonly available motor shield which does not require any previous skills. It can be also programmed easily using Adafruit library.
×1
HC-SR4 Ultrasonic Sensor
×1
HC-05 Bluetooth Module
HC-05 Bluetooth Module
×1
Geared motor
×2
Wheel
×2
Caster wheel
×2
9V battery (generic)
9V battery (generic)
×3
9V Battery Clip
9V Battery Clip
×3
Female/Female Jumper Wires
Female/Female Jumper Wires
×8
Plastic Box
×1

Software apps and online services

Bluetooth Electronics
Arduino IDE
Arduino IDE
Adafruit-Motor-Shield-library

Hand tools and fabrication machines

Soldering iron (generic)
Soldering iron (generic)
Hot glue gun (generic)
Hot glue gun (generic)
Screw driver

Story

Read more

Schematics

Make your first Arduino robot schematic - Robotech maker

Code

Bluetooth (Controlled Robot) Sketch

Arduino
/*
Author:  Marcelo Moraes 

					
  This project contains public domain code.
  The modification is allowed without notice.
  
 */

//Libraries
#include <AFMotor.h>

//Objects
AF_DCMotor motorRight(1, MOTOR12_64KHZ); // create motor #1, 64KHz pwm
AF_DCMotor motorLeft(3, MOTOR12_64KHZ);  // create motor #3, 64KHz pwm

//Constants and variable
char dataIn = 'S';
char determinant;
char det;
int vel = 0; //Bluetooth Stuff


void setup() {
  Serial.begin(9600); // set up Serial library at 9600 bps
  
  //Initalization messages
  Serial.println("ArduinoBymyself - ROVERBot");
  Serial.println("     AF Motor test!");
  
  //turn off motors
  motorRight.setSpeed(0);
  motorLeft.setSpeed(0);
  motorRight.run(RELEASE);
  motorLeft.run(RELEASE);
  
  

}

void loop() {
  det = check(); //call check() subrotine to get the serial code
  
  //serial code analysis
  switch (det){
    case 'F': // F, move forward
    motorRight.setSpeed(vel);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel);
    motorRight.run(FORWARD);      
    motorLeft.run(FORWARD);
    det = check();
    break;
    
    case 'B': // B, move back
    motorRight.setSpeed(vel);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel);
    motorRight.run(BACKWARD);      
    motorLeft.run(BACKWARD);
    det = check();
    break;
    
    case 'L':// L, move wheels left
    motorRight.setSpeed(vel);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel/4);
    motorRight.run(FORWARD);      
    motorLeft.run(FORWARD);
    det = check();
    break;
    
    case 'R': // R, move wheels right
    motorRight.setSpeed(vel/4);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel);
    motorRight.run(FORWARD);      
    motorLeft.run(FORWARD);
    det = check();
    break;
    
    case 'I': // I, turn right forward
    motorRight.setSpeed(vel/2);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel);
    motorRight.run(FORWARD);      
    motorLeft.run(FORWARD);
    det = check();
    break;
    
    case 'J': // J, turn right back
    motorRight.setSpeed(vel/2);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel);  
    motorRight.run(BACKWARD);     
    motorLeft.run(BACKWARD);
    det = check();
    break;
    
    case 'G': // G, turn left forward
    motorRight.setSpeed(vel);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel/2);
    motorRight.run(FORWARD);      
    motorLeft.run(FORWARD);
    det = check();
    break;
    
    case 'H': // H, turn left back
    motorRight.setSpeed(vel);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel/2);
    motorRight.run(BACKWARD);     
    motorLeft.run(BACKWARD);
    det = check();
    break;
    
    case 'S': // S, stop
    motorRight.setSpeed(vel);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel);
    motorRight.run(RELEASE);      
    motorLeft.run(RELEASE);
    det = check();
    break;
    
    
    
  }
}

//get bluetooth code received from serial port
int check(){
  if (Serial.available() > 0){// if there is valid data in the serial port
    dataIn = Serial.read();// stores data into a varialbe
    
    //check the code
    if (dataIn == 'F'){//Forward
      determinant = 'F';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'B'){//Backward
      determinant = 'B';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'L'){//Left
      determinant = 'L';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'R'){//Right
      determinant = 'R';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'I'){//Froward Right
      determinant = 'I';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'J'){//Backward Right
      determinant = 'J';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'G'){//Forward Left
      determinant = 'G';
    }    
    else if (dataIn == 'H'){//Backward Left
      determinant = 'H';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'S'){//Stop
      determinant = 'S';
    }
    else if (dataIn == '0'){//Speed 0
      vel = 0;
    }
    else if (dataIn == '1'){//Speed 25
      vel = 25;
    }
    else if (dataIn == '2'){//Speed 50
      vel = 50;
    }
    else if (dataIn == '3'){//Speed 75
      vel = 75;
    }
    else if (dataIn == '4'){//Speed 100
      vel = 100;
    }
    else if (dataIn == '5'){//Speed 125
      vel = 125;
    }
    else if (dataIn == '6'){//Speed 150
      vel = 150;
    }
    else if (dataIn == '7'){//Speed 175
      vel = 175;
    }
    else if (dataIn == '8'){//Speed 200
      vel = 200;
    }
    else if (dataIn == '9'){//Speed 225
      vel = 225;
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'q'){//Speed 255
      vel = 255;
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'U'){//Back Lights On
      determinant = 'U';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'u'){//Back Lights Off
      determinant = 'u';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'W'){//Front Lights On
      determinant = 'W';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'w'){//Front Lights Off
      determinant = 'w';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'V'){//Horn On
      determinant = 'V';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'v'){//Horn Off
      determinant = 'v';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'X'){//Extra On
      determinant = 'X';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'x'){//Extra Off
      determinant = 'x';
    }
  }
  return determinant;
}

Final Sketch (Final Code)

Arduino
/*
Author: Muhammed Azhar
visit - robotechmaker.com
*/

#include <AFMotor.h>
#define trigPin 14 // define the pins of your sensor
#define echoPin 15 

//Objects
AF_DCMotor motorRight(1, MOTOR12_64KHZ); // create motor #1, 64KHz pwm
AF_DCMotor motorLeft(3, MOTOR12_64KHZ);  // create motor #3, 64KHz pwm

//Constants and variable
char dataIn = 'S';
char determinant;
char det;
int vel = 255; //Bluetooth Stuff

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(9600); // set up Serial library at 9600 bps
  
  pinMode(trigPin, OUTPUT);// set the trig pin to output (Send sound waves)
  pinMode(echoPin, INPUT);// set the echo pin to input (recieve sound waves)  

  //Initalization messages
  Serial.println(" Mr.robot");
  Serial.println(" Reday for working!");
  
  //turn off motors
  motorRight.setSpeed(0);
  motorLeft.setSpeed(0);
  motorRight.run(RELEASE);
  motorLeft.run(RELEASE);
}

void loop() {
  det = check(); //call check() subrotine to get the serial code
  //serial code analysis
  switch (det){
    case 'F': // F, move forward
    motorRight.setSpeed(vel);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel);
    motorRight.run(FORWARD);      
    motorLeft.run(FORWARD);
    det = check();
    break;
    
    case 'B': // B, move back
    motorRight.setSpeed(vel);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel);
    motorRight.run(BACKWARD);      
    motorLeft.run(BACKWARD);
    det = check();
    break;
    
    case 'L':// L, move wheels left
    motorRight.setSpeed(vel);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel/4);
    motorRight.run(FORWARD);      
    motorLeft.run(FORWARD);
    det = check();
    break;
    
    case 'R': // R, move wheels right
    motorRight.setSpeed(vel/4);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel);
    motorRight.run(FORWARD);      
    motorLeft.run(FORWARD);
    det = check();
    break;
    
    case 'I': // I, turn right forward
    motorRight.setSpeed(vel/2);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel);
    motorRight.run(FORWARD);      
    motorLeft.run(FORWARD);
    det = check();
    break;
    
    case 'J': // J, turn right back
    motorRight.setSpeed(vel/2);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel);  
    motorRight.run(BACKWARD);     
    motorLeft.run(BACKWARD);
    det = check();
    break;
    
    case 'G': // G, turn left forward
    motorRight.setSpeed(vel);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel/2);
    motorRight.run(FORWARD);      
    motorLeft.run(FORWARD);
    det = check();
    break;
    
    case 'H': // H, turn left back
    motorRight.setSpeed(vel);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel/2);
    motorRight.run(BACKWARD);     
    motorLeft.run(BACKWARD);
    det = check();
    break;
    
    case 'S': 
   // S, stop
    motorRight.setSpeed(vel);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel);
    motorRight.run(RELEASE);      
    motorLeft.run(RELEASE);
    det = check();
    break;

    case 'm':
   
  //for wall follower robot.
   motorRight.setSpeed(vel); //set the speed of the motors, between 0-255
   motorLeft.setSpeed (vel); 

  long duration, distance; // start the scan
  digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);  
  delayMicroseconds(2); // delays are required for a succesful sensor operation.
  digitalWrite(trigPin, HIGH);

  delayMicroseconds(10); //this delay is required as well!
  digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);
  duration = pulseIn(echoPin, HIGH);
  distance = (duration/2) / 29.1;// convert the distance to centimeters.
  if (distance < 30)/*The distance that need to to keep with the wall */ {   
Serial.println ("Wall is ditected!" );
Serial.println (" Started following the wall ");
Serial.println (" Turning !");
   motorRight.setSpeed(vel);
   motorLeft.setSpeed(0);
   motorRight.run(FORWARD);
   motorLeft.run(RELEASE); 
   delay(500); // wait for a second
}

  else {
   Serial.println ("No Wall detected. turning round");
   delay (15);
    motorRight.setSpeed(0);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel); 
    motorRight.run(RELEASE); 
    motorLeft.run (FORWARD);

  }
     break;
     
    case 'b':
  //obstacle avoider robot
  
   motorRight.setSpeed(vel); //set the speed of the motors, between 0-255
   motorLeft.setSpeed (vel);  
 
  long Aduration, Adistance; // start the scan
  digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);  
  delayMicroseconds(2); // delays are required for a succesful sensor operation.
  digitalWrite(trigPin, HIGH);

  delayMicroseconds(10); //this delay is required as well!
  digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);
  Aduration = pulseIn(echoPin, HIGH);
  Adistance = (Aduration/2) / 29.1;// convert the distance to centimeters.
  if (Adistance < 25)/*if there's an obstacle 25 centimers, ahead, do the following: */ {   
Serial.println ("Close Obstacle detected!" );
Serial.println ("Obstacle Details:");
Serial.print ("Distance From Robot is " );
Serial.print ( Adistance);
Serial.print ( " CM!");// print out the distance in centimeters.

Serial.println (" The obstacle is declared a threat due to close distance. ");
Serial.println (" Turning !");
    motorRight.setSpeed(vel);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel); 
    motorLeft.run(BACKWARD);  // Turn as long as there's an obstacle ahead.
    motorRight.run (FORWARD);

}
  else {
   Serial.println ("No obstacle detected. going forward");
   delay (15);
   motorRight.setSpeed(vel);
   motorLeft.setSpeed(vel);
   motorRight.run(FORWARD); //if there's no obstacle ahead, Go Forward! 
   motorLeft.run(FORWARD);  

    } 
   break;
  }
}

//get bluetooth code received from serial port
int check(){
  if (Serial.available() > 0){// if there is valid data in the serial port
  dataIn = Serial.read();// stores data into a varialbe

//check the code
    if (dataIn == 'F'){//Forward
      determinant = 'F';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'B'){//Backward
      determinant = 'B';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'L'){//Left
      determinant = 'L';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'R'){//Right
      determinant = 'R';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'I'){//Froward Right
      determinant = 'I';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'J'){//Backward Right
      determinant = 'J';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'G'){//Forward Left
      determinant = 'G';
    }    
    else if (dataIn == 'H'){//Backward Left
      determinant = 'H';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'S'){//Stop
      determinant = 'S';
    }
    else if (dataIn == '0'){//Speed 0
      vel = 0;
    }
    else if (dataIn == '1'){//Speed 25
      vel = 25;
    }
    else if (dataIn == '2'){//Speed 50
      vel = 50;
    }
    else if (dataIn == '3'){//Speed 75
      vel = 75;
    }
    else if (dataIn == '4'){//Speed 100
      vel = 100;
    }
    else if (dataIn == '5'){//Speed 125
      vel = 125;
    }
    else if (dataIn == '6'){//Speed 150
      vel = 150;
    }
    else if (dataIn == '7'){//Speed 175
      vel = 175;
    }
    else if (dataIn == '8'){//Speed 200
      vel = 200;
    }
    else if (dataIn == '9'){//Speed 225
      vel = 225;
    }   
    else if (dataIn == 'b'){//Extra On
      determinant = 'b';
    }
    else if (dataIn == 'm'){//Extra On
      determinant = 'm';
    }

  }
  return determinant;
}

Obstacle Avoider Sketch

Arduino
/*
Author: Muhammed Azhar
visit - robotechmaker.com
*/

#include <AFMotor.h>
#define trigPin 14 // define the pins of your sensor
#define echoPin 15 

int vel = 255; // Speed of the robot

//Objects
AF_DCMotor motorRight(1, MOTOR12_64KHZ); // create motor #1, 64KHz pwm
AF_DCMotor motorLeft(3, MOTOR12_64KHZ);  // create motor #3, 64KHz pwm

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(9600); // set up Serial library at 9600 bps
  
  pinMode(trigPin, OUTPUT);// set the trig pin to output (Send sound waves)
  pinMode(echoPin, INPUT);// set the echo pin to input (recieve sound waves)  

  //Initalization messages
  Serial.println(" Mr.robot");
  Serial.println(" Reday for working!");
  
  //turn off motors
  motorRight.setSpeed(0);
  motorLeft.setSpeed(0);
  motorRight.run(RELEASE);
  motorLeft.run(RELEASE);
}

void loop() {
 //obstacle avoider robot
  
   motorRight.setSpeed(vel); //set the speed of the motors, between 0-255
   motorLeft.setSpeed (vel);  
 
  long duration, distance; // start the scan
  digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);  
  delayMicroseconds(2); // delays are required for a succesful sensor operation.
  digitalWrite(trigPin, HIGH);

  delayMicroseconds(10); //this delay is required as well!
  digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);
  duration = pulseIn(echoPin, HIGH);
  distance = (duration/2) / 29.1;// convert the distance to centimeters.
  if (distance < 25)/*if there's an obstacle 25 centimers, ahead, do the following: */ {   
Serial.println ("Close Obstacle detected!" );
Serial.println ("Obstacle Details:");
Serial.print ("Distance From Robot is " );
Serial.print ( distance);
Serial.print ( " CM!");// print out the distance in centimeters.

Serial.println (" The obstacle is declared a threat due to close distance. ");
Serial.println (" Turning !");
    motorRight.setSpeed(vel);
    motorLeft.setSpeed(vel); 
    motorLeft.run(BACKWARD);  // Turn as long as there's an obstacle ahead.
    motorRight.run (FORWARD);

}
  else {
   Serial.println ("No obstacle detected. going forward");
   delay (15);
   motorRight.setSpeed(vel);
   motorLeft.setSpeed(vel);
   motorRight.run(FORWARD); //if there's no obstacle ahead, Go Forward! 
   motorLeft.run(FORWARD);  

    } 
  } 

Wall Follower Sketch

Arduino
/*
Author: Muhammed Azhar
visit - robotechmaker.com
*/

#include <AFMotor.h>
#define trigPin 14 // define the pins of your sensor
#define echoPin 15 

int vel = 255; // Speed of the robot

			   //Objects
AF_DCMotor motorRight(1, MOTOR12_64KHZ); // create motor #1, 64KHz pwm
AF_DCMotor motorLeft(3, MOTOR12_64KHZ);  // create motor #3, 64KHz pwm

void setup()
{
	Serial.begin(9600); // set up Serial library at 9600 bps

	pinMode(trigPin, OUTPUT);// set the trig pin to output (Send sound waves)
	pinMode(echoPin, INPUT);// set the echo pin to input (recieve sound waves)  

							//Initalization messages
	Serial.println(" Mr.robot");
	Serial.println(" Reday for working!");

	//turn off motors
	motorRight.setSpeed(0);
	motorLeft.setSpeed(0);
	motorRight.run(RELEASE);
	motorLeft.run(RELEASE);
}

void loop()
{

	//for wall follower robot.
	motorRight.setSpeed(vel); //set the speed of the motors, between 0-255
	motorLeft.setSpeed(vel);

	long duration, distance; // start the scan
	digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);
	delayMicroseconds(2); // delays are required for a succesful sensor operation.
	digitalWrite(trigPin, HIGH);

	delayMicroseconds(10); //this delay is required as well!
	digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);
	duration = pulseIn(echoPin, HIGH);
	distance = (duration / 2) / 29.1;// convert the distance to centimeters.
	if (distance < 30)/*The distance that need to to keep with the wall */
	{
		Serial.println("Wall is ditected!");
		Serial.println(" Started following the wall ");
		Serial.println(" Turning !");
		motorRight.setSpeed(vel);
		motorLeft.setSpeed(0);
		motorRight.run(FORWARD);
		motorLeft.run(RELEASE);
		delay(500); // wait for a second
	}

	else
	{
		Serial.println("No Wall detected. turning round");
		delay(15);
		motorRight.setSpeed(0);
		motorLeft.setSpeed(vel);
		motorRight.run(RELEASE);
		motorLeft.run(FORWARD);
	}
}

Credits

Muhammed Azhar

Muhammed Azhar

1 project • 108 followers
I am Muhammed Azhar a 17 y/o maker from India. Visit my blog for more projects- robotechmaker.com

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