Aqib
Published

RFID Based Access Control System Using Arduino

The system will only give access on scanning the right tag. There will be a master tag that will be used to add/remove other tags.

IntermediateProtip2 hours12,207

Things used in this project

Hardware components

Arduino UNO
Arduino UNO
×1
I2C LCD
×1
MFRC522 RFID Reader
×1
Tags
×1
SG90 Micro-servo motor
SG90 Micro-servo motor
×1
LED
×3
Resistor 220 ohm
Resistor 220 ohm
×3
Buzzer
×1
Push Button
×1
6 to 12V power source
×1

Software apps and online services

Arduino IDE
Arduino IDE

Story

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Schematics

RFID based access control system using Arduino

Code

Code snippet

Plain text
#include <EEPROM.h>     // We are going to read and write Tag's UIDs from/to EEPROM
#include <MFRC522.h>
#include <LiquidCrystal_I2C.h>
#include <Servo.h>
#include <SPI.h>
#include <Wire.h>
// Create instances
MFRC522 mfrc522(10, 9); // MFRC522 mfrc522(SS_PIN, RST_PIN)
LiquidCrystal_I2C lcd(0x27, 16, 2);
Servo myServo;  // create servo object to control a servo
// Set Pins for led's, servo, buzzer and wipe button
constexpr uint8_t greenLed = 7;
constexpr uint8_t blueLed = 6;
constexpr uint8_t redLed = 5;
constexpr uint8_t ServoPin = 8;
constexpr uint8_t BuzzerPin = 4;
constexpr uint8_t wipeB = 3;     // Button pin for WipeMode
boolean match = false;          // initialize card match to false
boolean programMode = false;  // initialize programming mode to false
boolean replaceMaster = false;
uint8_t successRead;    // Variable integer to keep if we have Successful Read from Reader
byte storedCard[4];   // Stores an ID read from EEPROM
byte readCard[4];   // Stores scanned ID read from RFID Module
byte masterCard[4];   // Stores master card's ID read from EEPROM
///////////////////////////////////////// Setup ///////////////////////////////////
void setup() {
  //Arduino Pin Configuration
  pinMode(redLed, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(greenLed, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(blueLed, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(BuzzerPin, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(wipeB, INPUT_PULLUP);   // Enable pin's pull up resistor
  // Make sure led's are off
  digitalWrite(redLed, LOW);
  digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW);
  digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW);
  //Protocol Configuration
  lcd.begin();  // initialize the LCD
  lcd.backlight();
  SPI.begin();           // MFRC522 Hardware uses SPI protocol
  mfrc522.PCD_Init();    // Initialize MFRC522 Hardware
  myServo.attach(ServoPin);   // attaches the servo on pin 8 to the servo object
  myServo.write(10);   // Initial Position
  //If you set Antenna Gain to Max it will increase reading distance
  //mfrc522.PCD_SetAntennaGain(mfrc522.RxGain_max);
  ShowReaderDetails();  // Show details of PCD - MFRC522 Card Reader details
  //Wipe Code - If the Button (wipeB) Pressed while setup run (powered on) it wipes EEPROM
  if (digitalRead(wipeB) == LOW) {  // when button pressed pin should get low, button connected to ground
    digitalWrite(redLed, HIGH); // Red Led stays on to inform user we are going to wipe
    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print("Button Pressed");
    digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
    delay(1000);
    digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
    lcd.clear();
    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print("This will remove");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("all records");
    delay(2000);
    lcd.clear();
    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print("You have 10 ");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("secs to Cancel");
    delay(2000);
    lcd.clear();
    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print("Unpres to cancel");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("Counting: ");
    bool buttonState = monitorWipeButton(10000); // Give user enough time to cancel operation
    if (buttonState == true && digitalRead(wipeB) == LOW) {    // If button still be pressed, wipe EEPROM
      lcd.print("Wiping EEPROM...");
      for (uint16_t x = 0; x < EEPROM.length(); x = x + 1) {    //Loop end of EEPROM address
        if (EEPROM.read(x) == 0) {              //If EEPROM address 0
          // do nothing, already clear, go to the next address in order to save time and reduce writes to EEPROM
        }
        else {
          EEPROM.write(x, 0);       // if not write 0 to clear, it takes 3.3mS
        }
      }
      lcd.clear();
      lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
      lcd.print("Wiping Done");
      // visualize a successful wipe
      digitalWrite(redLed, LOW);
      digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
      delay(200);
      digitalWrite(redLed, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
      delay(200);
      digitalWrite(redLed, LOW);
      digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
      delay(200);
      digitalWrite(redLed, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
      delay(200);
      digitalWrite(redLed, LOW);
    }
    else {
      lcd.clear();
      lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
      lcd.print("Wiping Cancelled"); // Show some feedback that the wipe button did not pressed for 10 seconds
      digitalWrite(redLed, LOW);
    }
  }
  // Check if master card defined, if not let user choose a master card
  // This also useful to just redefine the Master Card
  // You can keep other EEPROM records just write other than 143 to EEPROM address 1
  // EEPROM address 1 should hold magical number which is '143'
  if (EEPROM.read(1) != 143) {
    lcd.clear();
    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print("No Master Card ");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("Defined");
    delay(2000);
    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print("Scan A Tag to ");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("Define as Master");
    do {
      successRead = getID();            // sets successRead to 1 when we get read from reader otherwise 0
      // Visualize Master Card need to be defined
      digitalWrite(blueLed, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
      delay(200);
      digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
      digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW);
      delay(200);
    }
    while (!successRead);                  // Program will not go further while you not get a successful read
    for ( uint8_t j = 0; j < 4; j++ ) {        // Loop 4 times
      EEPROM.write( 2 + j, readCard[j] );  // Write scanned Tag's UID to EEPROM, start from address 3
    }
    EEPROM.write(1, 143);                  // Write to EEPROM we defined Master Card.
    lcd.clear();
    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print("Master Defined");
    delay(2000);
  }
  for ( uint8_t i = 0; i < 4; i++ ) {          // Read Master Card's UID from EEPROM
    masterCard[i] = EEPROM.read(2 + i);    // Write it to masterCard
  }
  ShowOnLCD();    // Print data on LCD
  cycleLeds();    // Everything ready lets give user some feedback by cycling leds
}
///////////////////////////////////////// Main Loop ///////////////////////////////////
void loop () {
  do {
    successRead = getID();  // sets successRead to 1 when we get read from reader otherwise 0
    if (programMode) {
      cycleLeds();              // Program Mode cycles through Red Green Blue waiting to read a new card
    }
    else {
      normalModeOn();     // Normal mode, blue Power LED is on, all others are off
    }
  }
  while (!successRead);   //the program will not go further while you are not getting a successful read
  if (programMode) {
    if ( isMaster(readCard) ) { //When in program mode check First If master card scanned again to exit program mode
      lcd.clear();
      lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
      lcd.print("Exiting Program Mode");
      digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
      delay(1000);
      digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
      ShowOnLCD();
      programMode = false;
      return;
    }
    else {
      if ( findID(readCard) ) { // If scanned card is known delete it
        lcd.clear();
        lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
        lcd.print("Already there");
        deleteID(readCard);
        lcd.clear();
        lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
        lcd.print("Tag to ADD/REM");
        lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
        lcd.print("Master to Exit");
      }
      else {                    // If scanned card is not known add it
        lcd.clear();
        lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
        lcd.print("New Tag,adding...");
        writeID(readCard);
        lcd.clear();
        lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
        lcd.print("Scan to ADD/REM");
        lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
        lcd.print("Master to Exit");
      }
    }
  }
  else {
    if ( isMaster(readCard)) {    // If scanned card's ID matches Master Card's ID - enter program mode
      programMode = true;
      lcd.clear();
      lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
      lcd.print("Program Mode");
      uint8_t count = EEPROM.read(0);   // Read the first Byte of EEPROM that stores the number of ID's in EEPROM
      lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
      lcd.print("I have ");
      lcd.print(count);
      lcd.print(" records");
      digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
      delay(2000);
      digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
      lcd.clear();
      lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
      lcd.print("Scan a Tag to ");
      lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
      lcd.print("ADD/REMOVE");
    }
    else {
      if ( findID(readCard) ) { // If not, see if the card is in the EEPROM
        lcd.clear();
        lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
        lcd.print("Access Granted");
        granted();         // Open the door lock
        myServo.write(10);
        ShowOnLCD();
      }
      else {      // If not, show that the Access is denied
        lcd.clear();
        lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
        lcd.print("Access Denied");
        denied();
        ShowOnLCD();
      }
    }
  }
}
/////////////////////////////////////////  Access Granted    ///////////////////////////////////
void granted () {
  digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW);   // Turn off blue LED
  digitalWrite(redLed, LOW);  // Turn off red LED
  digitalWrite(greenLed, HIGH);   // Turn on green LED
  myServo.write(90);
  delay(1000);
}
///////////////////////////////////////// Access Denied  ///////////////////////////////////
void denied() {
  digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW);  // Make sure green LED is off
  digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW);   // Make sure blue LED is off
  digitalWrite(redLed, HIGH);   // Turn on red LED
  digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
  delay(1000);
  digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
}
///////////////////////////////////////// Get Tag's UID ///////////////////////////////////
uint8_t getID() {
  // Getting ready for Reading Tags
  if ( ! mfrc522.PICC_IsNewCardPresent()) { //If a new Tag placed to RFID reader continue
    return 0;
  }
  if ( ! mfrc522.PICC_ReadCardSerial()) {   //Since a Tag placed get Serial and continue
    return 0;
  }
  // There are Mifare Tags which have 4 byte or 7 byte UID care if you use 7 byte Tag
  // I think we should assume every Tag as they have 4 byte UID
  // Until we support 7 byte Tags
  for ( uint8_t i = 0; i < 4; i++) {  //
    readCard[i] = mfrc522.uid.uidByte[i];
  }
  mfrc522.PICC_HaltA(); // Stop reading
  return 1;
}
/////////////////////// Check if RFID Reader is correctly initialized or not /////////////////////
void ShowReaderDetails() {
  // Get the MFRC522 software version
  byte v = mfrc522.PCD_ReadRegister(mfrc522.VersionReg);
  // When 0x00 or 0xFF is returned, communication probably failed
  if ((v == 0x00) || (v == 0xFF)) {
    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print("Communication Failure");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("Check Connections");
    digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
    delay(2000);
    // Visualize system is halted
    digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW);  // Make sure green LED is off
    digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW);   // Make sure blue LED is off
    digitalWrite(redLed, HIGH);   // Turn on red LED
    digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
    while (true); // do not go further
  }
}
///////////////////////////////////////// Cycle Leds (Program Mode) ///////////////////////////////////
void cycleLeds() {
  digitalWrite(redLed, LOW);  // Make sure red LED is off
  digitalWrite(greenLed, HIGH);   // Make sure green LED is on
  digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW);   // Make sure blue LED is off
  delay(200);
  digitalWrite(redLed, LOW);  // Make sure red LED is off
  digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW);  // Make sure green LED is off
  digitalWrite(blueLed, HIGH);  // Make sure blue LED is on
  delay(200);
  digitalWrite(redLed, HIGH);   // Make sure red LED is on
  digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW);  // Make sure green LED is off
  digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW);   // Make sure blue LED is off
  delay(200);
}
//////////////////////////////////////// Normal Mode Led  ///////////////////////////////////
void normalModeOn () {
  digitalWrite(blueLed, HIGH);  // Blue LED ON and ready to read card
  digitalWrite(redLed, LOW);  // Make sure Red LED is off
  digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW);  // Make sure Green LED is off
}
//////////////////////////////////////// Read an ID from EEPROM //////////////////////////////
void readID( uint8_t number ) {
  uint8_t start = (number * 4 ) + 2;    // Figure out starting position
  for ( uint8_t i = 0; i < 4; i++ ) {     // Loop 4 times to get the 4 Bytes
    storedCard[i] = EEPROM.read(start + i);   // Assign values read from EEPROM to array
  }
}
///////////////////////////////////////// Add ID to EEPROM   ///////////////////////////////////
void writeID( byte a[] ) {
  if ( !findID( a ) ) {     // Before we write to the EEPROM, check to see if we have seen this card before!
    uint8_t num = EEPROM.read(0);     // Get the numer of used spaces, position 0 stores the number of ID cards
    uint8_t start = ( num * 4 ) + 6;  // Figure out where the next slot starts
    num++;                // Increment the counter by one
    EEPROM.write( 0, num );     // Write the new count to the counter
    for ( uint8_t j = 0; j < 4; j++ ) {   // Loop 4 times
      EEPROM.write( start + j, a[j] );  // Write the array values to EEPROM in the right position
    }
    BlinkLEDS(greenLed);
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("Added");
    delay(1000);
  }
  else {
    BlinkLEDS(redLed);
    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print("Failed!");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("wrong ID or bad EEPROM");
    delay(2000);
  }
}
///////////////////////////////////////// Remove ID from EEPROM   ///////////////////////////////////
void deleteID( byte a[] ) {
  if ( !findID( a ) ) {     // Before we delete from the EEPROM, check to see if we have this card!
    BlinkLEDS(redLed);      // If not
    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print("Failed!");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("wrong ID or bad EEPROM");
    delay(2000);
  }
  else {
    uint8_t num = EEPROM.read(0);   // Get the numer of used spaces, position 0 stores the number of ID cards
    uint8_t slot;       // Figure out the slot number of the card
    uint8_t start;      // = ( num * 4 ) + 6; // Figure out where the next slot starts
    uint8_t looping;    // The number of times the loop repeats
    uint8_t j;
    uint8_t count = EEPROM.read(0); // Read the first Byte of EEPROM that stores number of cards
    slot = findIDSLOT( a );   // Figure out the slot number of the card to delete
    start = (slot * 4) + 2;
    looping = ((num - slot) * 4);
    num--;      // Decrement the counter by one
    EEPROM.write( 0, num );   // Write the new count to the counter
    for ( j = 0; j < looping; j++ ) {         // Loop the card shift times
      EEPROM.write( start + j, EEPROM.read(start + 4 + j));   // Shift the array values to 4 places earlier in the EEPROM
    }
    for ( uint8_t k = 0; k < 4; k++ ) {         // Shifting loop
      EEPROM.write( start + j + k, 0);
    }
    BlinkLEDS(blueLed);
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("Removed");
    delay(1000);
  }
}
///////////////////////////////////////// Check Bytes   ///////////////////////////////////
boolean checkTwo ( byte a[], byte b[] ) {
  if ( a[0] != 0 )      // Make sure there is something in the array first
    match = true;       // Assume they match at first
  for ( uint8_t k = 0; k < 4; k++ ) {   // Loop 4 times
    if ( a[k] != b[k] )     // IF a != b then set match = false, one fails, all fail
      match = false;
  }
  if ( match ) {      // Check to see if if match is still true
    return true;      // Return true
  }
  else  {
    return false;       // Return false
  }
}
///////////////////////////////////////// Find Slot   ///////////////////////////////////
uint8_t findIDSLOT( byte find[] ) {
  uint8_t count = EEPROM.read(0);       // Read the first Byte of EEPROM that
  for ( uint8_t i = 1; i <= count; i++ ) {    // Loop once for each EEPROM entry
    readID(i);                // Read an ID from EEPROM, it is stored in storedCard[4]
    if ( checkTwo( find, storedCard ) ) {   // Check to see if the storedCard read from EEPROM
      // is the same as the find[] ID card passed
      return i;         // The slot number of the card
      break;          // Stop looking we found it
    }
  }
}
///////////////////////////////////////// Find ID From EEPROM   ///////////////////////////////////
boolean findID( byte find[] ) {
  uint8_t count = EEPROM.read(0);     // Read the first Byte of EEPROM that
  for ( uint8_t i = 1; i <= count; i++ ) {    // Loop once for each EEPROM entry
    readID(i);          // Read an ID from EEPROM, it is stored in storedCard[4]
    if ( checkTwo( find, storedCard ) ) {   // Check to see if the storedCard read from EEPROM
      return true;
      break;  // Stop looking we found it
    }
    else {    // If not, return false
    }
  }
  return false;
}
///////////////////////////////////////// Blink LED's For Indication   ///////////////////////////////////
void BlinkLEDS(int led) {
  digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW);   // Make sure blue LED is off
  digitalWrite(redLed, LOW);  // Make sure red LED is off
  digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW);  // Make sure green LED is off
  digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
  delay(200);
  digitalWrite(led, HIGH);  // Make sure blue LED is on
  digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
  delay(200);
  digitalWrite(led, LOW);   // Make sure blue LED is off
  digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
  delay(200);
  digitalWrite(led, HIGH);  // Make sure blue LED is on
  digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
  delay(200);
  digitalWrite(led, LOW);   // Make sure blue LED is off
  digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
  delay(200);
  digitalWrite(led, HIGH);  // Make sure blue LED is on
  digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
  delay(200);
}
////////////////////// Check readCard IF is masterCard   ///////////////////////////////////
// Check to see if the ID passed is the master programing card
boolean isMaster( byte test[] ) {
  if ( checkTwo( test, masterCard ) )
    return true;
  else
    return false;
}
/////////////////// Counter to check in reset/wipe button is pressed or not   /////////////////////
bool monitorWipeButton(uint32_t interval) {
  unsigned long currentMillis = millis(); // grab current time
  while (millis() - currentMillis < interval)  {
    int timeSpent = (millis() - currentMillis) / 1000;
    Serial.println(timeSpent);
    lcd.setCursor(10, 1);
    lcd.print(timeSpent);
    // check on every half a second
    if (((uint32_t)millis() % 10) == 0) {
      if (digitalRead(wipeB) != LOW) {
        return false;
      }
    }
  }
  return true;
}
////////////////////// Print Info on LCD   ///////////////////////////////////
void ShowOnLCD() {
  lcd.clear();
  lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
  lcd.print(" Access Control");
  lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
  lcd.print("   Scan a Tag");
}

Credits

Aqib

Aqib

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