Aqib
Published

RFID Based Access Control and Alert System Using Arduino

The system will give access on scanning the right tag and will sent us confirmation message otherwise it will send alert message.

AdvancedProtip4 hours2,654

Things used in this project

Hardware components

Arduino UNO & Genuino UNO
Arduino UNO & Genuino UNO
×1
I2C LCD
×1
MFRC522 RFID Reader
×1
Tags
×1
SIM900 GSM module
×1
5V, 2A power adapter
×1
SG90 Micro-servo motor
SG90 Micro-servo motor
×1
LED
×3
Resistor 221 ohm
Resistor 221 ohm
×3
Buzzer
Buzzer
×1
Pushbutton switch 12mm
SparkFun Pushbutton switch 12mm
×1
6 to 12V Power source
×1

Software apps and online services

Arduino IDE
Arduino IDE

Story

Read more

Schematics

rfid_based_access_control_and_alert_system_using_arduino_bb_3um32rhTlk.png

Code

Code snippet

Plain text
#include <EEPROM.h>     // We are going to read and write Tag's UIDs from/to EEPROM
#include <MFRC522.h>
#include <LiquidCrystal_I2C.h>
#include <SoftwareSerial.h>
#include <Servo.h>
#include <SPI.h>
#include <Wire.h>

// Create instances
SoftwareSerial SIM900(3, 4); // SoftwareSerial SIM900(Rx, Tx)
MFRC522 mfrc522(10, 9); // MFRC522 mfrc522(SS_PIN, RST_PIN)
LiquidCrystal_I2C lcd(0x27, 16, 2); // Set the LCD address to 0x27 for a 16 chars and 2 line display
Servo myServo;  // create servo object to control a servo

// Initialize Pins for led's, servo, buzzer and button
constexpr uint8_t greenLed = 7;
constexpr uint8_t blueLed = 6;
constexpr uint8_t redLed = 5;
constexpr uint8_t ServoPin = 8;
constexpr uint8_t BuzzerPin = 2;
constexpr uint8_t wipeB = 1;     // Button pin for WipeMode

boolean match = false;          // initialize card match to false
boolean programMode = false;  // initialize programming mode to false
boolean replaceMaster = false;
boolean RFIDMode = true;

uint8_t successRead;    // Variable integer to keep if we have Successful Read from Reader

byte storedCard[4];   // Stores an ID read from EEPROM
byte readCard[4];   // Stores scanned ID read from RFID Module
byte masterCard[4];   // Stores master card's ID read from EEPROM


///////////////////////////////////////// Setup ///////////////////////////////////
void setup() {
  //Protocol Configuration
  lcd.begin();  // initialize the LCD
  lcd.backlight();
  SPI.begin();           // MFRC522 Hardware uses SPI protocol
  mfrc522.PCD_Init();    // Initialize MFRC522 Hardware
  myServo.attach(ServoPin);   // attaches the servo on pin 8 to the servo object
  myServo.write(10);   // Initial Position
  // Arduino communicates with SIM900 GSM shield at a baud rate of 19200
  // Make sure that corresponds to the baud rate of your module
  SIM900.begin(19200);

  //Arduino Pin Configuration
  pinMode(redLed, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(greenLed, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(blueLed, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(BuzzerPin, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(wipeB, INPUT_PULLUP);   // Enable pin's pull up resistor

  // Make sure led's are off
  digitalWrite(redLed, LOW);
  digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW);
  digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW);

  //If you set Antenna Gain to Max it will increase reading distance
  //mfrc522.PCD_SetAntennaGain(mfrc522.RxGain_max);

  ShowReaderDetails();  // Show details of PCD - MFRC522 Card Reader details

  //Wipe Code - If the Button (wipeB) Pressed while setup run (powered on) it wipes EEPROM
  if (digitalRead(wipeB) == LOW) {  // when button pressed pin should get low, button connected to ground
    digitalWrite(redLed, HIGH); // Red Led stays on to inform user we are going to wipe

    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print("Button Pressed");
    digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
    delay(1000);
    digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);

    lcd.clear();
    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print("This will remove");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("all records");
    delay(2000);

    lcd.clear();
    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print("You have 10 ");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("secs to Cancel");
    delay(2000);

    lcd.clear();
    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print("Unpres to cancel");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("Counting: ");

    bool buttonState = monitorWipeButton(10000); // Give user enough time to cancel operation
    if (buttonState == true && digitalRead(wipeB) == LOW) {    // If button still be pressed, wipe EEPROM
      lcd.clear();
      lcd.print("Wiping EEPROM...");
      for (uint16_t x = 0; x < EEPROM.length(); x = x + 1) {    //Loop end of EEPROM address
        if (EEPROM.read(x) == 0) {              //If EEPROM address 0
          // do nothing, already clear, go to the next address in order to save time and reduce writes to EEPROM
        }
        else {
          EEPROM.write(x, 0);       // if not write 0 to clear, it takes 3.3mS
        }
      }
      lcd.clear();
      lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
      lcd.print("Wiping Done");

      // visualize a successful wipe
      digitalWrite(redLed, LOW);
      digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
      delay(200);
      digitalWrite(redLed, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
      delay(200);
      digitalWrite(redLed, LOW);
      digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
      delay(200);
      digitalWrite(redLed, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
      delay(200);
      digitalWrite(redLed, LOW);
    }
    else {
      lcd.clear();
      lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
      lcd.print("Wiping Cancelled"); // Show some feedback that the wipe button did not pressed for 10 seconds
      digitalWrite(redLed, LOW);
    }
  }

  // Check if master card defined, if not let user choose a master card
  // This also useful to just redefine the Master Card
  // You can keep other EEPROM records just write other than 143 to EEPROM address 1
  // EEPROM address 1 should hold magical number which is '143'
  if (EEPROM.read(1) != 143) {
    lcd.clear();
    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print("No Master Card ");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("Defined");
    delay(2000);

    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print("Scan A Tag to ");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("Define as Master");

    do {
      successRead = getID();            // sets successRead to 1 when we get read from reader otherwise 0

      // Visualize Master Card need to be defined
      digitalWrite(blueLed, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
      delay(200);
      digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
      digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW);
      delay(200);
    }
    while (!successRead);                  // Program will not go further while you not get a successful read
    for ( uint8_t j = 0; j < 4; j++ ) {        // Loop 4 times
      EEPROM.write( 2 + j, readCard[j] );  // Write scanned Tag's UID to EEPROM, start from address 3
    }
    EEPROM.write(1, 143);                  // Write to EEPROM we defined Master Card.
    lcd.clear();
    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print("Master Defined");
    delay(2000);
  }

  for ( uint8_t i = 0; i < 4; i++ ) {          // Read Master Card's UID from EEPROM
    masterCard[i] = EEPROM.read(2 + i);    // Write it to masterCard
  }

  ShowOnLCD();
  cycleLeds();    // Everything ready lets give user some feedback by cycling leds

  // AT command to set SIM900 to SMS mode
  SIM900.print("AT+CMGF=1\r");
  delay(100);
  // Set module to send SMS data to serial out upon receipt
  SIM900.print("AT+CNMI=2,2,0,0,0\r");
  delay(100);
}


///////////////////////////////////////// Main Loop ///////////////////////////////////
void loop () {
  // System will first check the mode
  if (RFIDMode == false) {  // If the RFID Mode is false then it will only look for master tag and messages
    // Function to receive message
    receive_message();

    // Function to get tag's UID
    getID();
    if ( isMaster(readCard) ) { // If Scanned tag is master tag
      RFIDMode = true; // Go back to RFID mode
    }
  }

  else if (RFIDMode == true) { // If RFID Mode is true then it will look for all tags and messages
    do {
      // Function to receive message
      receive_message();

      successRead = getID();  // sets successRead to 1 when we get read from reader otherwise 0

      if (programMode) {
        cycleLeds();              // Program Mode cycles through Red Green Blue waiting to read a new card
      }
      else {
        normalModeOn();     // Normal mode, blue Power LED is on, all others are off
      }
    }
    while (!successRead && RFIDMode == true);   // If we get a tag and RFID mode is true (RFID Mode will become false on getting 'close' message)
    if (programMode) {
      if ( isMaster(readCard) ) { //When in program mode check First If master card scanned again to exit program mode
        lcd.clear();
        lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
        lcd.print("Exiting Program Mode");
        digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
        delay(1000);
        digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
        ShowOnLCD();
        programMode = false;
        return;
      }

      else {
        if ( findID(readCard) ) { // If scanned card is known delete it
          lcd.clear();
          lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
          lcd.print("Already there");
          deleteID(readCard);

          lcd.clear();
          lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
          lcd.print("Tag to ADD/REM");
          lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
          lcd.print("Master to Exit");
        }

        else {                    // If scanned card is not known add it
          lcd.clear();
          lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
          lcd.print("New Tag,adding...");
          writeID(readCard);

          lcd.clear();
          lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
          lcd.print("Scan to ADD/REM");
          lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
          lcd.print("Master to Exit");
        }
      }
    }

    else {
      if ( isMaster(readCard)) {    // If scanned card's ID matches Master Card's ID - enter program mode
        programMode = true;

        lcd.clear();
        lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
        lcd.print("Program Mode");

        uint8_t count = EEPROM.read(0);   // Read the first Byte of EEPROM that stores the number of ID's in EEPROM
        lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
        lcd.print("I have ");
        lcd.print(count);
        lcd.print(" records");

        digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
        delay(2000);
        digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);

        lcd.clear();
        lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
        lcd.print("Scan a Tag to ");
        lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
        lcd.print("ADD/REMOVE");
      }

      else {
        if ( findID(readCard) ) { // If not, see if the card is in the EEPROM
          lcd.clear();
          lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
          lcd.print("Access Granted");
          granted();         // Open the door lock
          send_message("Door Opened \n If it wasn't you, type 'close'");
          myServo.write(10);
          ShowOnLCD();
        }

        else {      // If not, show that the Access is denied
          lcd.clear();
          lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
          lcd.print("Access Denied");
          denied();
          send_message("Someone Tried with the wrong tag");
          ShowOnLCD();
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

/////////////////////////////////////////  Access Granted    ///////////////////////////////////
void granted () {
  digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW);   // Turn off blue LED
  digitalWrite(redLed, LOW);  // Turn off red LED
  digitalWrite(greenLed, HIGH);   // Turn on green LED
  myServo.write(90);
  delay(1000);
}

///////////////////////////////////////// Access Denied  ///////////////////////////////////
void denied() {
  digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW);  // Make sure green LED is off
  digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW);   // Make sure blue LED is off
  digitalWrite(redLed, HIGH);   // Turn on red LED
  digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
  delay(1000);
  digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
}


///////////////////////////////////////// Get Tag's UID ///////////////////////////////////
uint8_t getID() {
  // Getting ready for Reading Tags
  if ( ! mfrc522.PICC_IsNewCardPresent()) { //If a new Tag placed to RFID reader continue
    return 0;
  }
  if ( ! mfrc522.PICC_ReadCardSerial()) {   //Since a Tag placed get Serial and continue
    return 0;
  }
  // There are Mifare Tags which have 4 byte or 7 byte UID care if you use 7 byte Tag
  // I think we should assume every Tag as they have 4 byte UID
  // Until we support 7 byte Tags
  for ( uint8_t i = 0; i < 4; i++) {  //
    readCard[i] = mfrc522.uid.uidByte[i];
  }
  mfrc522.PICC_HaltA(); // Stop reading
  return 1;
}

/////////////////////// Check if RFID Reader is correctly initialized or not /////////////////////
void ShowReaderDetails() {
  // Get the MFRC522 software version
  byte v = mfrc522.PCD_ReadRegister(mfrc522.VersionReg);

  // When 0x00 or 0xFF is returned, communication probably failed
  if ((v == 0x00) || (v == 0xFF)) {
    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print("Communication Failure");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("Check Connections");
    digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
    delay(2000);
    // Visualize system is halted
    digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW);  // Make sure green LED is off
    digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW);   // Make sure blue LED is off
    digitalWrite(redLed, HIGH);   // Turn on red LED
    digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
    while (true); // do not go further
  }
}

///////////////////////////////////////// Cycle Leds (Program Mode) ///////////////////////////////////
void cycleLeds() {
  digitalWrite(redLed, LOW);  // Make sure red LED is off
  digitalWrite(greenLed, HIGH);   // Make sure green LED is on
  digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW);   // Make sure blue LED is off
  delay(200);
  digitalWrite(redLed, LOW);  // Make sure red LED is off
  digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW);  // Make sure green LED is off
  digitalWrite(blueLed, HIGH);  // Make sure blue LED is on
  delay(200);
  digitalWrite(redLed, HIGH);   // Make sure red LED is on
  digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW);  // Make sure green LED is off
  digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW);   // Make sure blue LED is off
  delay(200);
}

//////////////////////////////////////// Normal Mode Led  ///////////////////////////////////
void normalModeOn () {
  digitalWrite(blueLed, HIGH);  // Blue LED ON and ready to read card
  digitalWrite(redLed, LOW);  // Make sure Red LED is off
  digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW);  // Make sure Green LED is off
}

//////////////////////////////////////// Read an ID from EEPROM //////////////////////////////
void readID( uint8_t number ) {
  uint8_t start = (number * 4 ) + 2;    // Figure out starting position
  for ( uint8_t i = 0; i < 4; i++ ) {     // Loop 4 times to get the 4 Bytes
    storedCard[i] = EEPROM.read(start + i);   // Assign values read from EEPROM to array
  }
}

///////////////////////////////////////// Add ID to EEPROM   ///////////////////////////////////
void writeID( byte a[] ) {
  if ( !findID( a ) ) {     // Before we write to the EEPROM, check to see if we have seen this card before!
    uint8_t num = EEPROM.read(0);     // Get the numer of used spaces, position 0 stores the number of ID cards
    uint8_t start = ( num * 4 ) + 6;  // Figure out where the next slot starts
    num++;                // Increment the counter by one
    EEPROM.write( 0, num );     // Write the new count to the counter
    for ( uint8_t j = 0; j < 4; j++ ) {   // Loop 4 times
      EEPROM.write( start + j, a[j] );  // Write the array values to EEPROM in the right position
    }
    BlinkLEDS(greenLed);
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("Added");
    delay(1000);
  }
  else {
    BlinkLEDS(redLed);
    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print("Failed!");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("wrong ID or bad EEPROM");
    delay(2000);
  }
}

///////////////////////////////////////// Remove ID from EEPROM   ///////////////////////////////////
void deleteID( byte a[] ) {
  if ( !findID( a ) ) {     // Before we delete from the EEPROM, check to see if we have this card!
    BlinkLEDS(redLed);      // If not
    lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
    lcd.print("Failed!");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("wrong ID or bad EEPROM");
    delay(2000);
  }
  else {
    uint8_t num = EEPROM.read(0);   // Get the numer of used spaces, position 0 stores the number of ID cards
    uint8_t slot;       // Figure out the slot number of the card
    uint8_t start;      // = ( num * 4 ) + 6; // Figure out where the next slot starts
    uint8_t looping;    // The number of times the loop repeats
    uint8_t j;
    uint8_t count = EEPROM.read(0); // Read the first Byte of EEPROM that stores number of cards
    slot = findIDSLOT( a );   // Figure out the slot number of the card to delete
    start = (slot * 4) + 2;
    looping = ((num - slot) * 4);
    num--;      // Decrement the counter by one
    EEPROM.write( 0, num );   // Write the new count to the counter
    for ( j = 0; j < looping; j++ ) {         // Loop the card shift times
      EEPROM.write( start + j, EEPROM.read(start + 4 + j));   // Shift the array values to 4 places earlier in the EEPROM
    }
    for ( uint8_t k = 0; k < 4; k++ ) {         // Shifting loop
      EEPROM.write( start + j + k, 0);
    }
    BlinkLEDS(blueLed);
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("Removed");
    delay(1000);
  }
}

///////////////////////////////////////// Check Bytes   ///////////////////////////////////
boolean checkTwo ( byte a[], byte b[] ) {
  if ( a[0] != 0 )      // Make sure there is something in the array first
    match = true;       // Assume they match at first
  for ( uint8_t k = 0; k < 4; k++ ) {   // Loop 4 times
    if ( a[k] != b[k] )     // IF a != b then set match = false, one fails, all fail
      match = false;
  }
  if ( match ) {      // Check to see if if match is still true
    return true;      // Return true
  }
  else  {
    return false;       // Return false
  }
}

///////////////////////////////////////// Find Slot   ///////////////////////////////////
uint8_t findIDSLOT( byte find[] ) {
  uint8_t count = EEPROM.read(0);       // Read the first Byte of EEPROM that
  for ( uint8_t i = 1; i <= count; i++ ) {    // Loop once for each EEPROM entry
    readID(i);                // Read an ID from EEPROM, it is stored in storedCard[4]
    if ( checkTwo( find, storedCard ) ) {   // Check to see if the storedCard read from EEPROM
      // is the same as the find[] ID card passed
      return i;         // The slot number of the card
      break;          // Stop looking we found it
    }
  }
}

///////////////////////////////////////// Find ID From EEPROM   ///////////////////////////////////
boolean findID( byte find[] ) {
  uint8_t count = EEPROM.read(0);     // Read the first Byte of EEPROM that
  for ( uint8_t i = 1; i <= count; i++ ) {    // Loop once for each EEPROM entry
    readID(i);          // Read an ID from EEPROM, it is stored in storedCard[4]
    if ( checkTwo( find, storedCard ) ) {   // Check to see if the storedCard read from EEPROM
      return true;
      break;  // Stop looking we found it
    }
    else {    // If not, return false
    }
  }
  return false;
}


///////////////////////////////////////// Blink LED's For Indication   ///////////////////////////////////
void BlinkLEDS(int led) {
  digitalWrite(blueLed, LOW);   // Make sure blue LED is off
  digitalWrite(redLed, LOW);  // Make sure red LED is off
  digitalWrite(greenLed, LOW);  // Make sure green LED is off
  digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
  delay(200);
  digitalWrite(led, HIGH);  // Make sure blue LED is on
  digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
  delay(200);
  digitalWrite(led, LOW);   // Make sure blue LED is off
  digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
  delay(200);
  digitalWrite(led, HIGH);  // Make sure blue LED is on
  digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
  delay(200);
  digitalWrite(led, LOW);   // Make sure blue LED is off
  digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
  delay(200);
  digitalWrite(led, HIGH);  // Make sure blue LED is on
  digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
  delay(200);
}

////////////////////// Check readCard IF is masterCard   ///////////////////////////////////
// Check to see if the ID passed is the master programing card
boolean isMaster( byte test[] ) {
  if ( checkTwo( test, masterCard ) )
    return 1;
  else
    return 0;
}

/////////////////// Counter to check in reset/wipe button is pressed or not   /////////////////////
bool monitorWipeButton(uint32_t interval) {
  unsigned long currentMillis = millis(); // grab current time

  while (millis() - currentMillis < interval)  {
    int timeSpent = (millis() - currentMillis) / 1000;
    Serial.println(timeSpent);
    lcd.setCursor(10, 1);
    lcd.print(timeSpent);

    // check on every half a second
    if (((uint32_t)millis() % 10) == 0) {
      if (digitalRead(wipeB) != LOW) {
        return false;
      }
    }
  }
  return true;
}

////////////////////// Print Info on LCD   ///////////////////////////////////
void ShowOnLCD() {
  lcd.clear();
  lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
  lcd.print(" Access Control");
  lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
  lcd.print("   Scan a Tag");
}

///////////////////////////// Receiving the message//////////////////////////////
void receive_message()
{
  char incoming_char = 0; //Variable to save incoming SMS characters
  String incomingData;   // for storing incoming serial data

  if (SIM900.available() > 0)
  {
    incomingData = SIM900.readString(); // Get the incoming data.
    delay(10);
  }

  // if received command is to open the door
  if (incomingData.indexOf("open") >= 0)
  {
    myServo.write(90);
    RFIDMode = true;
    send_message("Opened");
    delay(10000);
    myServo.write(0);
  }

  // if received command is to halt the system
  if (incomingData.indexOf("close") >= 0)
  {
    RFIDMode = false;
    send_message("Closed");
  }
  incomingData = "";
}

//////////// Send the message////////////////////////
void send_message(String message)
{
  SIM900.println("AT+CMGF=1");    //Set the GSM Module in Text Mode
  delay(100);
  SIM900.println("AT+CMGS=\"+XXXXXXXXXXXX\""); // Replace it with your mobile number
  delay(100);
  SIM900.println(message);   // The SMS text you want to send
  delay(100);
  SIM900.println((char)26);  // ASCII code of CTRL+Z
  delay(100);
  SIM900.println();
}

Credits

Aqib

Aqib

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For Custom Projects, hire me at https://www.freelancer.pk/u/Muhammadaqibdutt

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