What is El DisinfectoCurrent Scenario
Right now we are going through a very tough time, this COVID19 pandemic has hit almost all the industry and damaged the health industry severely and the most alarming situation is that we have not yet been able to invent any medications that can prevent or cure this disease even after 6 months, more than 250 countries are its victims already with 9, 210, 543 total cases, 474, 818 total deaths, 3, 778, 373 active cases out of which 57, 909 are in critical condition.Current Solution
The best and only thing that can be done is now remain at our homes and become more conscious about our health, more specifically about our cleanliness. Cleanliness can be our only key weapon to fight with this virus right now and beside house hold areas and working places also dis-infecting the hospitals, clinics, camps where COVID19 patients are being treated should be given highest priority. But frequently doing this dis-infecting process by volunteers or health workers again and again throughout the day with same effort & result is not only impossible but also we are throwing them into a great danger, this can led into an epitome of this virus, and again we are wasting a significant amount of health workers into a task that can be automated by robots & autonomous machines. These robots not only do this job with ensuring 100% safety again and again but also provide accurate results throughout day & night continuously.Related Projects and Their Short-comes
There are some recently developed working robots that can carry out these kind of tasks, some of them with chemical sprinkling technology & the hardware they use are costly, which can be a huge hindrance for mass production and to deploy them in hospitals/ clinics/ public places. Moreover these robots can’t be used in certain places where maintaining desiccated environment is a must like ICU, research labs, factories, production houses and not all of them are fully automated. Moreover these robots require some kind of human help to guide themselves, fill chemical fluids, walk across a crowded area etc.Our Solution
IR-Beacon guided autonomous dis-infector robot using UVC and junkyard material.What it does:
- DisInfectingProcess: Sunlight contains three types of UV. First there is UVA, which makes up the vast majority of the ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth’s surface. It’s capable of penetrating deep into the skin and is thought to be responsible for up to 80% of skin ageing, from wrinkles to age spots.Next there’s UVB, which can damage the DNA in our skin, leading to sunburn and eventually skin cancer (recently scientists have discovered that UVA can also do this). There is also a third type: UVC. This relatively obscure part of the spectrum consists of a shorter, more energetic wavelength of light. It is particularly good at destroying genetic material. To use UVC safely, you need specialist equipment and training. The World Health Organization (WHO) has issued a stern warning against people using UV light to sterilize. Here comes our fully automated system, which is capable of operating itself on it’s own.
- Autonomous Guided Path: There will be two IR beacon stations on the entry-exit locations of a room that will guide the robot to go in or come out. And then a volunteer can collect it without going in.
- Autonomous movement: Implemented autonomous movement with ultrasonic sensors around it, which makes it capable of avoiding obstacles coming into its path.
- ManualDrive: We implemented an web app with integrated keys where live video feed will be available to manually control the robot. | link
How We built it:
fig 1.0: manual drive web app
Used AutoCAD design software to make measurements and adjust fabrication process.
Chassis is made of plywood which is easily available in most of the hardware stores. Had it built in such a way that it can traverse in all areas and all the equipment can fit easily. For this, the preferable shape should be circle/oval shape. Length of the chassis: 10inch, Width of the chassis: 10inch.
Fig 1.2: Chassis Fabrication
Drive motor and Wheels Installation:
All measurements can be found in the AutoCAD design(.dwg) file.
fig 2.1: Assembly of Motor and Wheels
Caster Wheel Installation:
fig 2.2: Assembly of caster wheel
Mounting Sonar Sensors on the chassis:
Used Glue gun to mount sonar sensors on the chassis body and card-board paper is used to make them elevated and balanced.
fig 3.1: Front sonar assembly and primary distance testing
Final Sonar Assembly And Soldering :
fig 3.2: Final sonar assembly
Mounting IR receiver on the chassis:
Used female header pins soldered on the Vero board to attach IR receiver and hot glued it on the chassis and the connecting white wires works as VCC, gnd and Signal.
fig 4.1: Left and Right IR receiver assembly
The Ir beacon Housing assembly:
The IR beacon/transmitter circuit is extracted from an old tv remote which has some button malfunctions. To keep the beacon always working, had to short a button. The beacon generates frequency at 38KHz and the robot tries to follow that path.
fig 4.2: IR beacon transmitting from old tv remote
UVC light Installation:
We Had to purchase 4watt UVC tube light. As the light needs to be portable while it's moving along side the body, so an inverter circuit is required. The schematic diagram is found on the contributor link. The circuit harvests power from a 3.7volt 1100mAh lipo battery and powers the light.
fig 5.1: UVC Light housing, test and assembly on the chassis
Final Circuit Assembly:
Circuit Diagram can be found on the fritzing file.
fig 6.1: final circuit assembly and vero board housing on the chassis.
Why consider this
- We have used analogue sensor like, IR receiver, for reading the sensor value ATMega328p is used.
- ATMega328p extracts sensor data, executes Arduino code and generates motor control strings like:forward, left, right which goes to raspberry pi using serial port (reading tx pin from micro-controller).
- Serial communication setup procedure between raspberry pi and Arduino, can be found on the contributor link section.
- We used inverter circuit to to light up the 4W UVC lamp. Schematic Diagram can be found on the contributor link as well.
- We used external wifi adapter for better connectivity. It's not mandatory to have an external adapter, one can use the built in too.
- Can maintain desiccated environment
- No fluid filling overhead, No volunteer involved
- Fully powered on electricity, only charging required
- Charging part also handled autonomously
- IR-Beacon guided path to charging dock
- Also able to avoid obstacle along its path
- Cheap junkyard material ensures low cost & fast mass production
- Small size and round shape makes it more flexible to move around